Thursday, 5 March 2015


A Proposal
1.      Name of the Project: Indo-Bangla Jackfruit Garden, Cochabamba.
2.      Responsible person: Shamoly Rani Nath.
3.      Location of the Project: Cochabamba, Bolivia.
4.      Goal of the Project: To plant jackfruit and sell them in local and international market.
5.      Introduction to Jackfruit: an overview- Enclosed below.
6.      Any previous similar Project: Another jackfruit gardening project in Kulaura, Moulvibazar, Bangladesh is already running and is producing satisfactory jackfruits.
7.      Number of people will work: Minimum 15 (fifteen) people in various sections initially.
8.      Requisite funds: Funding will be done from Bangladesh personally.
9.      International market: Jackfruit has a high demand in rich countries like USA, Australia and all European countries. If properly produced, it can be exported in all Latin and Central American countries easily.
10.  Why Cochabamba? : Cochabamba is a place where all requisites for planting Jackfruits are present. It is the place where a good rainfall is available. The land is hilly and water is not supposed to stand.
11.  My relation with jackfruit : I am from such a country where Jackfruit is the National fruit. I have been familiar with this fruit since my birth. Moreover, I am involved with similar garden in Bangladesh.
12.  Departments who are expected to assist me: a) Ministry of Agriculture  b) Ministry of Land  c) Ministry of Labour and d) Department of Security.
13.  Conclusion:  I strongly hope that the above mentioned Ministries will be generous to materialize my plan and would allow me to let everyone taste the sweet fruit. 

Jackfruit is the National fruit of Bangladesh and is native to Thailand, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka.   Jackfruit grows on trees and is oval shaped. They have a thick and prickly green skin. When the jackfruit is opened one finds the round fruits contained in 'pockets' in a fibrous interior. The flesh is pale yellow and tastes sweet and has a sweet odor. The seeds are also edible and taste similar to chestnuts.      
Jackfruit is the largest tree-borne fruit in the world, reaching 80 pounds in weight and up to 36 inches long and 20 inches in diameter. The exterior of the compound fruit is green or yellow when ripe. The interior consists of large edible bulbs of yellow, banana-flavored flesh that encloses a smooth, oval, light-brown seed. The seed is 3/4 to 1-1/2 inches long and 1/2 to 3/4 inches thick and is white and crisp within. There may be 100 or up to 500 seeds in a single fruit, which are viable for no more than three or four days. When fully ripe, the unopened jackfruit emits a strong disagreeable odor, resembling that of decayed onions, while the pulp of the opened fruit smells of pineapple and banana.
Jackfruit belong to the Artocarpus family, or the same family as the breadfruit made famous by Captain Bligh. The main species is the A. heterophylla. According to Purdue University, the origin of the jackfruit isn't known--the plants are widely distributed throughout tropical Asia and Bangladesh and India, where they have been in cultivation for hundreds of years. Because this is a commercially important plant, jackfruit have been extensively hybridized over the years. Growers have worked to encourage traits like early fruiting, late-season fruiting, large fruit, small fruit, and sweeter fruit.
Adaptation: Jackfruit is adapted to humid tropical and near-tropical climates. Mature trees have survived temperatures of about 27° F but these were frozen to large limbs. Young trees are likely to be killed at temperatures below 32° F. Unlike its relative, the breadfruit, the jackfruit is not injured by cool weather several degrees above freezing.
Soil: The jackfruit flourishes in rich, deep soil of medium or open texture. Planting on top of an old compost heap would be ideal. The faster one can force a tropical plant to grow, the better the chance of keeping it alive. The tree needs the best drainage and cannot tolerate "wet feet".
How to plant Jackfruit:
1. Plant Propagation. The use of seeds is generally preferred because vegetative propagation is quite difficult. However, trees may not exhibit the characters of the parent plant, take longer time to start flowering, and are generally tall.
The seeds should be collected from healthy, mature plants which are prolific producers of fruits with desirable characteristics. Only large seeds are used. Immediately after extraction from the fruit, the seeds are washed in water to remove the slimy coating around the seeds. The horny part of the pericarp is also removed to hasten germination.
As a general rule, the seeds are sown immediately without drying because they are recalcitrant. If not possible, however, the seeds can be stored in air-tight plastic containers at 20 C to maintain their viability for about 3 months. In sowing, the seeds are laid flat or with their hilum facing downward. Germination should begin within 10 days. It is expected that 80-100% of the seeds will have germinated within 35 to 40 days after sowing.
Growing jackfruit can also be started through vegetative propagation using stem cuttings and by air layering or marcotting. However, special techniques are necessary, including the use of rooting hormones at the right concentrations. The Forkert method or patch budding as well as cleft grafting and wedge grafting likewise proved successful.
In Thailand, suckle grafting is extensively applied in growing jackfruit. It is a form of inarching in which young potted rootstocks are decapitated and inserted in twigs of the mother trees.
2. Land Preparation and Holing. Just like other crops, proper land preparation is important in growing jackfruit. In sloping lands or where only a few trees are to be planted, land preparation involves the slashing of the vegetation and round weeding of the immediate peripheries of the hills. If a large number of trees is to be planted, it is best to prepare the land thoroughly by plowing. Holes are then dug 0.5-1 meter deep and wide. To ensure supply of nutrients, this will be refilled with topsoil mixed with 1/3 proportion of compost. If raw manure is used or any organic substrate, planting should be delayed for at least 15 days to allow decomposition.
3. Planting. Field planting can be done by direct seeding or by transplanting using nursery grown potted seedlings. Potted seedlings should be outplanted usually before they are one year old or before the roots leak out of the pot because the seedlings are sensitive to root disturbance. Bareroot transplanting is inapplicable to jackfruit.
Jackfruit can be planted with a spacing of 8-12 meters in square, rectangular or triangular pattern. This is equivalent to a population density of about 70 to 156 plants per hectare (28-63 plants per acre) in the square system and 80 to 180 per hectare (32-72 per acre) in the triangular or hexagonal system.
The exact population, however, can only be determined by preparing a planting lay-out plan showing the positions of the hills, plant-to-plant spacing, and the distances of rows to the boundaries. This lay-out plan is similar to a construction blueprint which should be made before actually starting the farm activities in growing jackfruit.
4. Fertilizing. Fertilizer application is always a component of growing jackfruit or any crop on a continuing basis. Farm manures are applied in increasing doses from 10 to 30 kg per year as the tree matures. To ensure maximum yields of fruiting trees, complete fertilizer is applied at the rate of 1-3 kg per tree per year. Addition of muriate of potash is also generally recommended for fruiting trees. The rate is split into two equal doses, the first application preferably during the onset and the second just before the end of the rainy season. If irrigation is available, fertilizer application can be programmed every 6 months.
5. Watering. Regular watering should be done, unless rainfall is sufficient, from planting until the seedlings are fully established. Sufficient water is likewise needed during dry months when the trees are in the flower bloom and fruit development stages.
6. Weeding and Mulching. Ring weeding is practiced to keep the immediate periphery of the tree free of weeds. This operation is a regular necessity in growing jackfruit at least during the first 3 to 4 years after planting. The weeds can be piled around the tree to serve as mulch which will conserve moisture and prevent the germination of weed seeds.
7. Pruning. The height of jackfruit, especially those raised from seed, can be regulated by cutting the main trunk about 2-3 meters from the ground. Early cutback of the main trunk can also be done to induce production of branches, allowing 4 or 5 branches to develop which are evenly distributed when viewed from the top. Properly trained, jackfruit grows with an open center which allows better light penetration.
Weak, dead, diseased and overlapping branches should be removed. This is to promote light penetration and air movement, and to prevent build up of insect pests and disease pathogen population. Branches are also removed if they hinder access to the fruits during wrapping and harvesting.
8. Intercropping. It is desirable that the spaces between the rows of the jackfruit trees are cultivated and used for the production of either annual or perennial intercrops or both. Examples of such intercrops are citrus, banana, pineapple, corn, peanut (groundnut) and other pulses, spices and vegetables. This will maximize farm productivity in addition to the benefits of proper weed control management. If not, leguminous cover crops can be seeded.
9. Insect Pest and Disease Control. It is important that one who engages in growing jackfruit should also be familiar with pests and diseases that affect the crop. The two major pests of jackfruit are the shoot and fruit borer (Diaphania caesalis) and the brown bud weevil (Ochyromera artocarpi). Caterpillars of the shoot borer tunnel into buds, young shoots and fruit. The grubs of the bud weevil bore into young buds and fruits while the adults feed on the leaves. To prevent damage, the fruits are wrapped with plastic bags when still young. Fallen, overripe and damaged fruits should be collected and buried under ground.
Blossom rot, also called fruit rot and stem rot, is a serious disease caused by the fungus Rhizopus artocarpi. It may lead to 15-32% crop losses. The disease affects the inflorescences or the tips of the flowering shoots. The inflorescences turn black, rot and drop. Another disease is the pink disease, also called pink limb blight, caused by the fungus Corticium salmonicolor. This disease infects many farm crops, including rubber, citrus, mango, durian, coffee and cacao. Control measures include thorough collection and disposal of the affected parts and fallen fruits.
10. Harvesting. Young fruits can be harvested for vegetable 2-3 months after fruit set or when the seeds are hardened. For mature fruits, selection is based on the following indices: (1) hollow sound when the fruit is tapped; (2) change in the color of the skin from pale green to greenish-yellow or brownish-yellow; (3) emission of a strong aroma; and (4) flattening of the spines with wider spaces. The stalk (peduncle) of the fruit should be cut with a sharp knife and the fruit is gently lowered to the ground.
 Health benefits of jackfruit
100 g of edible jackfruit bulbs provide 95 calories. The fruit is made of soft, easily digestible flesh (bulbs) with simple sugars like fructose and sucrose that when eaten replenishes energy and revitalizes the body instantly.
Jackfruit is rich in dietary fiber, which makes it a good bulk laxative. The fiber content helps protect the colon mucous membrane by binding to and eliminating cancer-causing chemicals from the colon.
Fresh fruit has small amounts of vitamin-A, and flavonoid pigments such as carotene-ß, xanthin, lutein and cryptoxanthin-ß. Together, these compounds play vital roles in antioxidant and vision functions. Vitamin A is also required for maintaining integrity of mucus membranes and skin. Consumption of natural fruits rich in vitamin-A, and carotenes has been found to protect from lung and oral cavity cancers.
Additionally, jackfruit is a good source of antioxidant vitamin-C, provides about 13.7 mg or 23% of RDA. Consumption of foods rich in vitamin C helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful free radicals.
It is one of the rare fruits that is rich in B-complex group of vitamins. It contains very good amounts of vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine), niacin, riboflavin, and folic acid.
Fresh fruit is a good source of potassium, magnesium, manganese, and iron. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure.
 Jackfruit seeds
Jackfruit seeds are indeed very rich in digestible starch, protein and minerals. In general, the seeds are gathered from the ripe fruit during summer, sun-dried and stored for use in rainy season in many parts of South Indian states. Again, in these areas, jackfruit seeds can be employed in variety of recipes where they generally are eaten either by roasting as a snack or added to stews (curries) in place of lentils.
The seeds have around 135 kcal/ 100 gms. It is a rich source of complex carbohydrate, dietary fiber, vitamins like vitamin A, C and certain B vitamins, and minerals like calcium, zinc, and phosphorous with high nutrition benefit in a seed.
Jackfruit seed contain lignans, isoflavones, saponins, that are called phytonutrients and their health benefits are wide-ranging from anti-cancer to antihypertensive, anti-ageing, antioxidant, anti-ulcer, etc.
Boiled Jackfruit seeds are very tasty and nutritious snacks to eat. Jackfruit seeds, which always taste like chestnuts which appeal to all tastes, may be boiled or roasted and eaten, or boiled and preserved in syrup like chestnuts.
  1. Jack Fruit Tree is a very large and evergreen tree in Bangladesh and India Known as 'Artocarpus Heterophylla' Botanically, the jackfruit tree possess one of the most popular and most important fruit of Bangladesh, a little after the Mango and the Plantain varieties. The tree has come from the `Moraceae` family. The Bengali people know the tree in the name of 'Katthal'.
    The tree has a solid crown of dark green leaves and the fruits hang from the branches, from the trunk and even on the roots of older trees. They look like massive and unattractive vermin. Some of the fruit trees are widely grown in other country in less amount. Dependent upon the soil conditions the fruits are grown in some place of the country. It grows high and spreads well in the sandy soil.
    The leaves of the 'Jackfruit Tree', grow in close clusters at the ends of the branchlets alternating each other. They are large, thick and tough and in rectangular shape. They also have a rounded end and they point towards the short stalk. 
    Photos of Bangladeshi Jackfruit consultants: